Atmospheric pollutants I
Waste matter is released into the atmosphere from a variety of pollutant sources. Atmospheric pollutants area serious threat to health. The pollutants present in the atmosphere are: particulate solids, droplets of liquids and gases. It is convenient to classify pollutants as primary pollutants which are emitted directly into atmosphere and secondary pollutants which are formed in the atmosphere from primary pollutants.
Parcicules, alternately referred to as Particulate Matter (PM). Aerosols or fine particles are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in the air. They range in size from 10 nm (nanometer) to 100 um (micrometer) in diameter. The composition of fine particles depends on the source. The deposition site is a function of particle size. Larger particles are generally filtered by the nose and do not cause problems, but particulate matter smaller than about 10 micrometres (PM10) can settle in the lungs and cause health problems. Particles emitted from modern vehicle engines are typically in the size range of 100 nanometres.
Lead enters the air from lead tetraethyl which is added to petrol as an antiknock. Lead from atmosphere pollutes the land. Vehicles exhausts are the chief source of lead pollution.
Carbon monoxide, which is primarily emitted from combustion process, particularly from vehicle exhausts; the highest concentrations are generally found at roadside locations. Inhalation of high levels of carbon monoxide can cause headaches and respiratory problems. Carbon monoxide has many common sources. The exhaust of the internal combustion engine, when burning a carbon-based fuel contains carbon monoxide. In the home, carbon monoxide (CO) gas forms when fuels like natural gas or wood do not burn completely in appliances such as air heaters, ranges and ovens.
Sulfur oxides, which causes acid rain is caused from the burning of fuel containing sulfur, mostly at power plants. Sulphur dioxide reacts with air doplets to form acid rain.
Pollution map (XZ-Plane) produced by continuous discharge in this region. The fucshia lines represents two different stacks (position of two different point sources) in a XZ-Plane. The red colour represents high pollutant concentrations. The green colour represents the ground and the surface topography.
Pollution map (XY-Plane) produced by continuous discharge in a road region. The fucshia squares represent the road line (position of the different point sources) in a XY-Plane. The red colour represents high pollutant concentrations.
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